The aim of the research is to study the cultural diversity of the actively present workforce in organizational life and to explore its advantages and disadvantages. The thesis examines the extent to which the performance and efficiency of individuals and organizational groups are influenced by the impact of different cultural identities resulting from cultural diversity in the labor market. To conduct our research, we chose the questionnaire procedure, which is a type of quantitative research method. The questionnaire method proved to be a sensible choice for us as it results in smooth data collection, especially in the current epidemic situation caused by COVID-19. The results of the study describe the attitudes, impressions and positive and negative experiences of employees who may work in other intercultural spaces and acquire routines, as well as employees' attitudes to work, what influences their performance and what they influence to build their careers. By summarizing the data collected in connection with the questionnaire survey, we come to the conclusion that the positive benefits of diversity management triumph over the inherent disadvantages. In addition, diversity management has a significant impact on organizational creativity while not influencing an individual’s professional career.
This paper examines the role of different structures of constraint in restricting women’s access to paid work in Pakistan. Using data from the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics and Pakistan Demographic Health Surveys, it offers a descriptive analysis of men and women’s labor market outcomes in Pakistan, evincing gender inequalities. Although female labor force participation rates in Pakistan have risen over 1990-2018, much of this increase might have come from informal employment in rural areas, within the category of self-employment and family work. Female employment is largely segregated to the agricultural sector (66%), followed by the manufacturing sector (16%). From 2013 to 2018, employment in the manufacturing sector grew faster for women than for men. However, much of this increase came from a sharp growth in the female share in the category of self-employment and contributing family work (by 39 percentage points); men’s share in that category declined slightly (by 3 percentage points). Female shares in wage and salaried employment declined both in agricultural (15 percentage points) and manufacturing (27 percentage points) sectors while the corresponding male shares rose (albeit marginally). This essay argues that various structures of constraint on the supply-side such as early childbearing patterns, patriarchal rules regarding seclusion and marriage, and a larger burden of unpaid care-work under the joint-family system restrict women’s participation in paid work. Similarly, on the demand-side, pervasive systematic discrimination, wherein job ads explicitly demand male candidates, discourages women’s preferences for and access to paid work.
In today’s world, parents plan their children’s careers according to their wishes and dreams instead of their abilities. This situation has become an extremely important problem for children. Career planning is the beginning of an important process that will continue throughout life. University education is an important starting point that affects people's choice of profession. Uşak University has a structure that provides education in different fields. Although it was founded in 2006, it is a university with 191 different departments and more than 29 thousand students. As of 2021, when the study was conducted, there are 24,408 graduate students. As with every university in Turkey, the students studying at Uşak University aim to acquire a profession and employment opportunity. Accordingly, career planning for students begins with education.In the education system in Turkey, there are also schools for gaining a profession before university education. However, since public employment is a highly preferred area in our country, higher education has become a necessity for everyone. Since the number of non-public institutionalized enterprises is limited, almost everyone's only address to find a job is public institutions. It is possible to employ those who receive education on a particular occupation for employment without getting a college education. This is extremely limited.Another problem is that education planning for employment in our country is only at the level of advice. For this reason, every individual can determine his profession after the university exam. In other words, the career planning of the students starts after they are placed in the university.Especially in Turkey, it is seen that employment after higher education is mostly in the public sector. Therefore, it is known that students see taking part in public employment as a job guarantee. Accordingly, the factors in career planning will be determined in the study and it will be tried to see how they guide their future plans.
This study is an effort to show the long-run effects of foreign direct investment and domestic investment on economic growth of Ethiopia and tested the hypotheses that whether foreign direct investment crowds-in or crowds-out domestic investment in Ethiopia. A macroeconomic annual basis data covering 1981 up to 2019 is used and an auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) econometric regression technique is employed. The result from domestic investment equation shows that foreign direct investment crowd-in domestic investment in Ethiopia. The implication is that in order to increase more domestic investment activity in the country, the government and policy makers have to harmonize the countries investment policy by bringing more FDI inflow from the rest of the world. This might be done by securing peace and political stability in the country, reducing the existing problems of access in electricity, transportation and telecommunication services, reasonable devaluation of domestic currency and by decreasing import tariff on intermediate products. Besides, GDP growth rate of the country can increase the domestic investment activity of the country. But, FDI is found to be insignificant in affecting economic growth of the country rather its positive effect is witnessed only on domestic investment of the country. Domestic public investment and private investment are found to be significant in affecting real GDP growth rate of the country. This might induce the government to liberalization of the goods and factor markets for the private sector, public sector and tax reform and diversifying the economy in order to generate more revenue for investment and so as to achieve long run economic growth in the country.